1. Thoroughly discuss guidelines of an exemplary demonstration, and rationale to support the use of demonstrations.
Exemplary demonstration includes a full demonstration with the equipment being used, a full demonstration without the equipment and a full demonstration with the cues on slow motion, followed by a full speed demonstration. Furthermore, demonstrations should be done from multiple angles, to make sure that the entire class can see what it is they are supposed to be learning.
The cues for the skill that is being taught must me explained before any demonstration is given. This is important because everyone learns things in a different way. For example, I am a visual learner, which means that I learn the best when someone is physically showing me what to do. Someone else may be more of auditory learner, and that is when a visual aid will come in handy, that has all the cues written out on it.
Another way to demonstrate is to show common faults that can happen within the skill being taught. I am not a fan of this. I believe that this will just confuse children. There is no need to show them how to do a skill incorrectly, you want them just to focus on the correct way to complete a skill, and fix the common mistakes as they come, not help them be brought out.
In addition to just giving the demonstrations of the skill, the teacher must always check of students understanding. This can be done by having the students repeat the cues back to the professor, another way to check for understanding is to ask the students questions about what it is they are supposed to be doing.
2. What are the three components of a terminal objective as discussed in class? Write an objective in each domain that might be found in a canoeing unit in an 8th grade setting.
Task situation and criteria, are the three components of a terminal objective.
The task is what is being asked of the student. For example, with canoeing a task could be that the student needs to learn and demonstrate the proper cues for a J stroke.
The situation can be defined as where the skill should be done. Again for example with canoeing the situation could the students practicing the cues for a J stroke while they are in the canoe on a lake 20 feet from shore.
The criterion is how well the student will complete/ perform a skill. For example, the students will complete 12-15 J strokes using the right cues and techniques.
3. Explain the idea “checking for understanding” in a lesson. When in a lesson should the teacher check for understanding and how?
Checking for understanding is a way to see if the students were able to understand what the task you had given them was. Whether it was a new sports skill you just demonstrated, or a game you would like them to play as a group. Therefore in addition to just giving the demonstrations of the skill, the teacher must always check of students understanding. This can be done by having the students repeat the cues back to the professor, another way to check for understanding is to ask the students questions about what it is they are supposed to be doing.
Different ways of checking for understanding includes, waiting 3-5 seconds for the student’s responses, asking different types of questions. For example the teacher asks one student what one of the rules to the game was, and then asks a different student, how long that same game will be played for. Sampling the group can also be used when asking questions. This just means you ask the high and the lower achievers in class questions, this just helps the teacher see if all of their students know what is going on.
Also asking the students to show a physical response to what is being asked of them. One way of doing this would be to have the students walk though the cues in slow motion. Furthermore, gestures can be used, as well as watching student’s performance.
4. What is a Physically Educated person?
A physically educated person is someone who is well versed in whatever it is that they are teaching at that point in time. Even if the teacher is not able to complete some of the skills that they need to teach to their students, they should be able to completely explain the skills and be able to answer any questions the student’s might have about that skill. The teacher needs to be an expert on what they are teaching; they need to know all of the ins and outs of what they are teaching, even if they cannot perform the skill/sport themselves. The teacher should be able to explain and understand the skill so well that they are able to successfully teach the skill to their class with a high success rate, so that they have students in their class that can demonstrate what the teacher was unable to.
5. Explain the Anticipatory Set section of a lesson plan, include each part and give a description of each.
An Anticipatory Set section of a lesson plan includes a hook, objectives, and expectations. A hook is something like a fact or a picture that gets the class excited about what they are going to be learning that day. Objectives, are your expectations for your class. They include the three learning objectives which are affective, cognitive, and psychomotor. Furthermore within these objectives are the task, situation and criterion.
6. Define “closed” skill. Give a specific example. Detail a teaching sequence which demonstrates the nature of instruction for this type of skill.
A closed skill is a skill that is preformed in a fixed non changing environment. An example of a closed skill would be a foul shot in basketball. The player shooting the foul shot is on their own without any changes or distractions A closed skill much like a foul shot in basketball is a self-paced and the environment is stationary. A teaching sequence for teaching a foul shout in basketball would be to start with the students holding the ball in the proper way (dominant hand on the ball, non dominant hand as the guide). Then have the student practice “throwing” the ball up in the air using the proper cues for shooting( hand position, elbow up, follow through, flick wrist). After there was success with the students throwing the ball in the air to themselves have them stand facing a wall and pick a spot on the wall to shoot at, again having them follow the proper cues. Then finally once this is successful bring the students over to the basketball hoops and have them try shooting at those.
7. Define the term "open" skill. Give a specific example, and detail a teaching sequence which demonstrates the nature of instruction for this type of skill.
Open skills are skills that are externally paced, and in which the environment is moving. Open skills need to be practiced in an environment that is varied and moving. For example the pass (bump) in volleyball. The player needs to be able to pass all different types of serves. An Teaching sequence for the open skill of passing in volleyball would start with the class in partners. One partner will stand on one side of the net and toss the ball to their partner who will pass the ball up to the net. Start with a nice easy high toss, and then once this is easy for the student, you can have their partner toss the ball lower and harder. Have them throw the ball with top spin and back spin. Furthermore the partner can toss the ball deep and short on the court. All of this is forcing the partner who is passing the volleyball to move around and pass all types of “serves.” One this is done make sure you have the partners switch places so that they botch get a chance to be the tosser and the passer. Then once they have both had a turn have the partner start serving the ball at their other partner the passer. The server should again use all different types of server. The jump serve, float serve, top spin, jump float etc… once again have the partners switch places.
8. What are the 3 stages of Learning as described in your book and discussed in class. List them and give a brief definition. How should criterion in an objective change if students are in different stages of learning?
Cognitive beginner when a student has to think and go back to the cues to remember how to perform the correct skill.
Associative inter level student is semi-comfortable with the skill that is being preformed. The skills are not automatic yet but do come easier to the student then before.
Autonomous proficiency the skills are automatic for the student.
If the students are in different stages of learning then the teachers needs to have different modifications for the skills to accommodate all of the students. This would change the objectives because some students would be at a higher level than others so then you would have to change the objectives for fit to all the students.
9. When surveying your environment before planning to teach or actually teaching, what 4 conditions should you be observing?
Observe for management, safety, equipment and learning
10. How do teachers decide when to move on to the next task?
Teachers decide when to move on to the next task when there is a 85% success rate within the class on the task that the students were working on.