1. Multicultural history of American Education
a. Culturally responsive teaching- This is a form of teaching the focuses on the learning strengths of students and mediates the frequent mismatch between home cultures and school cultures. A teacher teaching a multicultural education in a suburban or urban school district where there are mostly minorities, or diverse students, is successful when they are able to bridge the gap between possible racial, cultural, and language differences.
The history of multicultural teaching began back on 1954 when the Supreme Court ruled in favor or Brown and desegregation of schools. Once the schools were desegregated the teachers had to adapt their teaching styles in order to accommodate the different learning styles and beliefs that come from different cultures, races, backgrounds, and ethnic groups. The best way to teach our multicultural students is to create close links between home and school, so that minority children can succeed academically. This is also known as teaching the culturally different.
Multicultural education has four main components; the first component is expanding the curriculum to reflect the diversity that is so common in The United States. The Second main point of multicultural education is having teachers use teaching strategies that are responsive to the different learning styles. The third is supporting the multicultural competence of teachers so they are comfortable working with students and families from different cultures. Last but not least is the strategy of committing to social justice. This is promoting the efforts to work and teach towards gaining local and global equality.
According to James Banks, multicultural education and curriculum can be broken into four different levels of teaching diverse students. Banks believes that in order to have a more positive attitude towards different groups is to integrate and broadensr the curriculum so that it is more inclusive and action orientated. As we move from the first level to the second level to the third and then the fourth level the amount of inclusion of different cultures increases. The first level of multicultural teaching is known as The Contributions Approach. This approach focuses on the heroes, holidays and discrete cultural elements. An example of this would be incorporating a lesson on Kwanza around the holidays, or Cinco de Mayo being celebrated and described in class. Besides the celebrating and description of the holiday, there is no more in-depth learning about this topic at this level.
The Second level of approaches to Multicultural education is known as The Additive Approach. In this level is where content, concepts and perspectives are added into the curriculum, but are added in without changing the structure of the curriculum itself. An example of this would be February being considered black history month. Although this month is dedicated to black history, which can be a break from the curriculum, it still does not make a substantial change to the curriculum as a whole.
The third level approach to multicultural education is more inclusive then the first second level and much more inclusive then the first level. This level is referred to as the Transformation Approach. Through the Transformation Approach the structure of the curriculum is changed, and it is changed in a way to enable students to view concepts, issues, events and themes from different perspectives of diverse ethnic groups. An example of this would be a class studying westward expansion of the Europeans through Manifest Destiny through the eyes of the Europeans, or in through the eyes of the Native Americans who saw westward expansion and invasion from the east.
The fourth and final level of multicultural education is called the Social Action Approach. Now that students have learned to view issues from multiple perspectives, The Social Action Approach comes into play is. This is where the students become directly involved and make decisions on important social issues and take action to and become involved in solving these problems. This level takes multicultural learning above and beyond the other three level, because students become directly involved in the issues at hand.
Level 1 Contributions Approach Level 2 Additive Approach Level 3 Transformation Approach Level 4 Social Action Approach
*Each level builds upon the level before it. As the number of the level increases the level of involvement in inclusion also increases.
When multicultural education became underway its main focus was fighting racism. Now that time has passed multicultural teaching has expanded to not only fighting racism but also fighting, and preventing injustices that have to do with gender issues, social class, disability, sexual orientation, and stereotyping. Stereo types are absolute beliefs that all members of a certain group have a fixed set of characteristics. Stereotypes ignore individuality by applying the stereotype to all members of a certain group here is an issue that occurs when it comes to stereotyping. This issue is known as stereotype threat, stereotype threat is a measure of how social context, such as self image, trust in others and a sense of belonging, can influence academic performance. When a person is aware of the stereotype that they are a part of then they are more likely to behave in that way, then if the stereotype did not exist at all. Furthermore, stereotype threat can be diminished by ensuring that your curriculum represents diversity across race, ethnicity, gender, religion and social class.
In addition to stereotyping, there is another term called generalization. To make a generalization is to recognize that there are trends that can exist over large numbers of people. Members of certain religious, racial or ethnic groups tend to share certain similarities. This offers insights, does not draw hard and fast conclusions like stereotypes.
Race is defined as a group of individuals that share a common socially determined category often related to genetic attributes, physical appearance, and ancestry. Ethnicity is defined as shared common cultural traits such as language religion and dress. A sense of shared people hood is the most important characteristics of ethnicity. Lastly, Culture is a set of learned beliefs, values, symbols and behaviors. Culture is a way of life shared by members of its society.
The expectation theory plays a large role in racism. The expectation theory is a theory where some children do not do well in school because their teachers do not expect much of kids of certain racial or ethnic groups. As a result of this these teachers teach these students different, and this is a form or discrimination.
A possible resolution of racism is the Cultural difference theory. This is a theory that asserts theat academic problems can be overcome if educators study and mediate the cultural gap separating school and home.
Bilingual education is the use to two languages for education. Language submersion is when students who are not fluent in speaking English (or dominant language) and they either learned to speak English as they sat in class or they failed out of school. This is also known as the sink or swim/ speak or sink outcome.
Lau v. Nichols was a lawsuit that reached the Supreme Court and it was centered on a student named Kinney Lau and 1,800 other Chinese students from the San Francisco area who were failing classes because they could not understand English. The Supreme Court ruled unanimously that federally funded schools must “Rectify the language deficiency” This meant that teaching students in a language they did not understand was not appropriate education, thus began bilingual education.
Bilingual education consists of four approaches to teaching students who are not fluent in the dominant language of where they are in school.
One approach is the Transitional Approach; this uses the native language of the student to bridge English language instruction. This is where students start learning in their native language and then slowly enter English into their classes more and more until they can speak English.
Another approach to teaching bilingual education is the Maintenance / Developmental Approach. The Maintenance / Developmental Approach is designed to help students develop academic skills in both English and their native language. This approach is where instruction will occur in both languages. Furthermore, another Approach is the dual-language instruction, where from kindergarten through twelfth grade students develop cognitively in both languages. They will learn about the culture and history of their ethnic group as well as the culture and history of the dominant culture.
Immersion Approach is where instruction is exclusively in English. Immersion cannot be considered truly bilingual, but it is uses with English language learners just like the other three approaches.
2. Normal Schools
In 1893, the Reverend Samuel Hall established a normal school. A Normal schools is a school the established model standards. Normal Schools typically provide a two year teacher training program. This teacher training program consisted of academic subjects as well as teaching methodologies. In the beginning of the 1990s the Normal schools were the backbone of education.
The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) was formed to promote teaching excellence through recognition of superior, experienced teachers. This was simply a way of licensing new teachers who reach minimal standards. The Goal of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards is to award board certification to extraordinary teachers whose skills and knowledge indicate their high level of achievement. To receive this board certification teachers had to complete a series of performance based assessments that show the reflection of mastery of their subject and understanding of the most effective teaching styles.
A Charter school is a school (or contract) that represents legal permission from a local or state school board to operate the school. This is usually for a fixed period of time, like five years for example, with the local or state school board having the right to renew the charter if the school is successful.
3. Important People
Over in Germany, Friedrich Froebel established the first kindergarten in 1837. Kindergarten stood for “chi ld’s garden. He established the first kindergarten to cultivate children’s development and learning. He had lost his parents at a very young age and really looked up to teachers, and that is why he believed that it is so important to establish an emotionally secure environment for children. In kindergarten Froebel provided cooperative activities for socialization and physical development of children. He would use materials such as clay and sand to stimulate children’s imaginations.
In the nineteenth century, German immigrants came over to the United States and brought with the Froebel’s idea of kindergarten education. Margarette Schurz established a German speaking kindergarten in Wisconsin in 1855. The first English speaking kindergarten and training school for kindergarten teachers were created by Elizabeth Peabody in Boston in 1860.
Horace Mann played an instrumental role in establishing the first state supported normal school in Lexington, Mass. Horace Mann also became the nation’s leading advocate for the establishment of a common school that was open to all. A common school is what we would consider an elementary school today. Horace Mann helped create the Massachusetts State Board of Education and played a large role as the secretary, which in our eyes would be considered a superintendent today.
4. John Dewey and Progressive Education.
John Dewey was one of the most influential and controversial educators of the twentieth century. He established a famous laboratory school at the University of Chicago. John Dewey is one of the main causes of the Progressivism, the Progressive Movement and the Progressive Approach to teaching. He is also known as the personification of progressive education and its biggest advocate.
Progressive Education includes three components, the first component helping to broaden the school programs to include health concerns, family and community life issues and a concern for vocational education. The second component was that progressivism applied new research in psychology and social sciences in the classroom practices. Lastly the third component looked for a more democratic educational approach, this accepted the needs and interests of the increasingly diverse student body.
5. Important Legal cases.
Title IX was a part of the Educational Amendments, and passed in 1972. Title IX states that “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded for participation in, be denied benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.” This was a huge step for women’s right in education. No school has ever been financially penalized by the federal government for violation Title IX.
With the Civil War at an end, it brought with it an end to policies of ignorance and affirmation of black people’s belief in the power of education. Plessy v. Ferguson was a Supreme Court case in 1896, where segregation because a legally sanctioned way of life in the United States. This case created a doctrine of “separate but equal.” “Separate but equal,” was not Equal. An example of this would be in 1907 when Mississippi spent $5.02 for the education of each white child versus $1.10 on each black child. This also created de jure segregation, where segregation by law or by official action.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (Kansas), was another Supreme Court case the ruled unanimously that “in the field of public education the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ has no place” this was the court case the over turned the ruling of Plessy v. Ferguson. This caused schools to desegregate, and brought on the Civil Rights Act. The Civil Rights Act is the act that gave federal government power to help local schools desegregate when necessary, to initiate lawsuits or withhold federal school funds to force schools to desegregate. (Title IV).
“The U.S. Supreme Court issued its historic Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, 347 U.S. 483, on May 17, 1954. The decision declared all laws establishing segregated schools to be unconstitutional, and it called for the desegregation of all schools throughout the nation” (2.^ Warren, Earl, Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court, Brown v. Topeka Board of Education, Cornell, http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0347_0483_ZO.html).
After the decision the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) attempted to register black students in previously all-white schools in cities throughout the South
6. Little Rock Nine Occurrences
The Little Rock Nine is a group of African-American students who were enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957.
1. Virgil Blossom, the Superintendent of Schools, submitted a plan of gradual integration to the school board on May 24, 1955, which the board unanimously approved. The plan would be implemented during the fall of the 1957 school year, which would begin in September 1957.
2. By 1957, the NAACP had registered nine black students to attend the previously all-white Little Rock Central High, selected on the criteria of excellent grades and attendance. The nicknamed "Little Rock Nine" consisted of Ernest Green, Elizabeth Eckford, Jefferson Thomas, Terrence Roberts, Carlotta Walls LaNier, Minnijean Brown, Gloria Ray Karlmark, Thelma Mothershed, and Melba Pattillo Beals.
3. The Little Rock Crisis, which was when the students were at first prevented from entering the racially segregated school by Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus. They were prevented from entering the school by a line of armed soldiers. This occurrence made it to the national headlines
4. The intervention of President Eisenhower in this crisis, which is considered to be one of the most important events in the African-American Civil Rights Movement.
5. On their first day of school, troops from the Arkansas National Guard would not let them enter the school and they were followed by mobs making threats to lynch.
6. Ernest Green was the first African American to graduate from Central High School.